Buddhism in Europe

An Annotated Bibliography on its Historical Development and Contemporary State of Affairs

By Martin Baumann


  • 1. General overviews and surveys
  • 2. Geographical studies
  • 2.1. United Kingdom
  • 2.2. Federal Republic of Germany
  • 2.3. France
  • 2.4. Austria
  • 2.5. Switzerland
  • 2.6. The Netherlands
  • 2.7. Belgium
  • 2.8. Italy
  • 2.9. Hungary
  • 2.10. Poland
  • 2.11. (former) Soviet Union/ CIS
  • 2.12. Nordic Countries
  • 2.13. Portugal, Spain, Greece, (former) Yugoslavia,


Emphasis is laid on scholary historical studies within the last two or three decades. The bibliography lists books and articles, university theses and nation-wide journals published by Buddhist organisations in the respective country. As this collection is set up as a “working bibliography”, any suggestions and recommodations of further scholarly historical studies and theses are most welcome and appreciated. Many, but not all entries are accompained by a short (subjective) comment and assessment, indicated as IH for Ian Harris, RW for Russell Webb and MB for Martin Baumann. Special thanks to Ian Harris (Lancaster), Jens-Uwe Hartmann (Berlin) and Russell Webb (London) and numerous scholars and Buddhists from Europe for advice and suggestions.


Almond, Philip C., “The Buddha in the West. From Myth to History”, in: Religion, 16, 1986, pp. 305-322. [describing the construction of concepts and images of Saakyamuni Buddha in scholarly studies of the early 19th century: the mythological figure (1800) shifts to a historical person (1850); MB]

Ananda, W.Buddhism in Western CountriesWorld Buddhism Series No 15, Vidyalankara University, Sri Lanka, ca. 1960.

Bachler, Louis A.Het Boeddhisme en Europa, Berne 1911.

Batchelor, StephenThe Awakening of the West: The Encounter of Buddhism and Western Culture, Berkeley, Cal.: Parallax Press and London: Aquarian, Harper & Collins 1994; 416 pp. [detailed and broad overview of the encounter; from ancient times to the 1990’s; very well informed and written as a narrative; MB]

Baumann, Martin, “Creating a European Path to Nirvaana: Historical and Contemporary Developments of Buddhism in Europe”, in: Journal of Contemporary Religion, 1, 1, 1995, pp. 55-70 [synoptic overview of both historical and contemporary developments of Buddhism and Buddhist activities in European countries; the appeal of Buddhism in Europe; Asian Buddhists in Europe; adaptation and creation of new Buddhist concepts; two charts; MB].

Baumann, Martin, “Der Buddhismus im Abendland. Historische Entwicklung und gegenwaertige Praesenz”, in: Religio. Revue pro Religionistku (Czech Republic), 3, 1, 1995, pp. 17-42. [survey of Buddhism in Europe; the contemporary appeal of Buddhism in Europe; 2 charts, 2 maps; MB]

Baumann, Martin, “Il buddhismo in Occidente”, in: Storia delle Religioni, Vol. 4: Religioni dell’India e dell’Estremo Oriente, ed. by Giovanni Filoramo, Rom: Gius. Laterza & Figli 1996, pp.483-497; German version available, 16 pp. [survey of historic and contemporary developments of Buddhism in Europe, the US, South Africa and Australia; includes a table on numbers of ethnic-Asian and Euro-American Buddhists; MB]

Baumann, Martin, “Buddhism in the West: Phases, Orders and the Creation of an Integrative Buddhism”, in Internationales Asienforum, 27, 3-4, 1996.

Bechert, Heinz, “Buddhist Revival in East and West”, in: Heinz Bechert, Richard Gombrich (eds.), The World of Buddhism, London: Thames and Hudson 1984, pp. 273-285; also a German edition available, Munich 1984, pp. 274-286 [a very good and substantial survey: Buddhist Modernism in South-Asia, Interrelations West-East; Buddhism in India, Indonesia, in Germany, U.K., U.S.A.; Buddhist ecumenism; MB]

Benz, ErnstZenbuddhismus und Zensnobismus. Zen in westlicher Sicht, Weilheim/Obb. 1962. [detailed although polemical study of the development and adoption of Zen Buddhism in the West; focusses on Rinzai Zen tradition; MB]

Benz, Ernst, “Buddhismus in der westlichen Welt”, in: Heinrich Dumoulin, Buddhismus in der Gegenwart, Freiburg 1970, pp. 191-204; first published in: Saeculum, 20, 1969, pp. 355-368; also an English edition in 1976. [good general survey, beginnings in U.S.A., U.K., 19th and 20th century Germany, MB]

Bertholet, AlfredDer Buddhismus und seine Bedeutung fuer unser Geistesleben, Tuebingen 1904, 65 pp.

Bertholet, AlfredBuddhismus im Abendland der Gegenwart, Tuebingen 1928, 40 pp.

Berval, Ren&eacute de (ed.), Pr&eacutesence du Bouddhisme, Saigon 1959, 1024 pp.; revised ed. Paris: Gallimard 1987.

Bishop, PeterDreams of Power. Tibetan Buddhism and the Western Imagination, London: Athlone Press 1993, 162 pp. [on the Western construction and projection of images about Tibet as pure, original, unpolluted etc; very well analysed and contextualized; also on Jung, the ‘Tibetan Book of the Dead’ and the new monasticism in the West; MB]

Brear, Douglas, “Early Assumptions in Western Buddhist Studies”, in: Religion, 7, 1977,pp.136-159.

Brueck, Michael von, “Juengste Entwicklungen des Buddhismus in Europa”, in: Zeitschrift fuer Missionswissenschaft und Religionswissenschaft, 70, 1, 1986, pp. 71-73. [short report on Kalacakra ritual performed in Switzerland; plus some general points on recent developments; interesting; MB]

Clausen, Christopher, “Victorian Buddhism and the Origins of Comparative Religion”, in:Religion, 5, 1975, pp. 1-15. [good, analytical article with regard to the image and presentation of Buddhism during 19th century; MB]


Eckert, Karl Hubertus, “Buddhismus in Europa – europaeischer Buddhismus?”, in:Mitteilungen der BG Muenchen, 1/2, 1990, pp. 3-18. [detailed and instructive article on development and (mainly philosophical) adoption of Buddhism in Europe; outlines features of a ‘European Buddhism’; typology of groups and members; MB]


Ellwood, Robert S., “Buddhism in the West”, in: Mircea Eliade (ed.), Encyclopedia of Religion, New York:MacMillan 1987, pp. 436-439. [mainly on North America, too onesided; weak; MB].

Govinda, Lama AnagarikaLebendiger Buddhismus im Abendland – Vision und Vermaechtnis des grossen Mittlers zwischen Ost und West, Bern, Muenchen, Wien: Barth Verlag 1986, 207 pp., posthum. ed. by Advayavajra. [collection of seven essays by the late AMM founder on various Buddhist topics; MB]

Gunter-Jones, RogerBuddhism and the West, London: Lindsay Press 1973.

Guruge, Ananda W. P., “Buddhism in Europe in the Twenty-first Century”, in: Buddhism into the Year 2000: International Conference Proceedings (First International Conference ‘Buddhism into the Year 2000′, hosted by the Dhammakaaya Foundation, Bangkok (Thailand), February 8th 1990), Bangkok: Dhammakaya Foundation 1995, pp. 211-118.

Halbfass, WilhelmIndien und Europa: Perspektiven ihrer gesitigen Begegnung, Basel, Stuttgart: Schwab 1981, 550 pp.; Engl transl. India and Europe. An Essay in Understanding, Albany: State University of New York Press 1988 [very comprehensive and detailed historico-philosophical survey of the encounter and the mutual interrelation of ideas and concepts; complements Schwab’s seminal work La Renaissance Orientale, 1950; MB]

Iggleden, R. E. “Short Survey of Buddhism in the West”, in: The Mahaa Bodhi, 77, 11/12, 1969, pp. 366-370. [description entirely from the Theravaada perspective, no naming of Mahaayaana- and Zen groups; biased towards the U.K.; MB]

International Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, New Delhi: Anmol Publications 1996.

Jong, J. W. deA Brief History of Buddhist Studies in Europe and America, 2dn ed. Delhi 1987. [the most learned chronological survey of the academic research on Buddhism; MB]

Kantowsky, DetlefBuddhismus, Braunschweig 1993, enclosing “Buddhismus im Westen”, pp. 135-188. [short, sometimes impressionistic and phenomenological overview; instructive; MB]

Kantowsky, Detlef, “Buddhistischer Modernismus im Westen”, in: Peisert, Hansgert; Zapf, Wolfgang (eds.), Gesellschaft, Demokratie und Lebenschanzen. Festschrift fuer Ralf Dahrendorf, Stuttgart: DVA 1994, pp. 217-234; also in English in “Buddhist Modernism in the West/Germany”, in: Everding, Ulrich (ed.), Buddhism and Christianity. Interactions between East and West, Proceedings of the Symposium 18.-20.12.1993 in Kandy (Sri Lanka), Colombo: Goethe Institut Colombo 1995, pp. 101-115 [on Buddhism in Germany; overview of current topics (female spirituality, social and ecological involvement, ecumenity) from the perspective of practicing Buddhists; MB].

Ladner, Max, “Buddhistische Mission in Europa”, in: Zeitschrift fuer Missionswissenschaft und Religionswissenschaft, 10. 1958, pp. 317-333. [history of Buddhism in Europe, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche; importance of the distribution of literature; Buddhism in various countries of Europe plus implicit advertising for Buddhism; MB]

Lubac, Henri deLa Recontre du Bouddhisme et de l’Occident, Paris 1952.

March, Arthur C.Buddhist Bibliography, London 1935, 257 pp.

Matsudo, Yukio, “Problems in the Reception of Nichiren in Europe”, paper given at the conference of the ‘European Association for Japanese Studies’ (Berlin Sept. 1991), unpublished paper, 10 pp. 1991. [learned study of the mainly negative presentation of Nichiren Buddhism by European scholars; MB]

Nyaanasatta Thera, “Buddhism in the West”, in: Mahaa Bodhi, 75, 3 and 4, 1967, pp. 74-82 and pp. 105-110. [first contacts since ancient times, 18th and 19th century, Schopenhauer, text editions; Schultze, Neumann, Nyaanaponika; activities in Germany, Buddhism as a fashion; Western people in Asia; Buddhist monasteries in the West; although biased towards the Theravaada, quite useful and full of information; MB].

Nydahl, OleEntering the Diamond Way: My Path among the Lamas, Nevada City, Calif.: Blue Dolphin Pub. 1985, 251 pp. (translation of Die Buddhas vom Dach der Welt, Duesseldorf, Koeln 1979).

Nydahl, OleUeber alle Grenzen. Wie die Buddhas in den Westen kamen, Sulzberg: Joy-Verlag 1990, 421 pp. [narrative story of the beginnings of Tibetan, especially Karma-Kagyu Buddhism in the West; Nydahl’s and Karmapa’s journeys, foundings of centres; MB]

Peiris, WilliamThe Western Contribution to Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 1973, 287 pp., 48 plates. [contains life-sketches of Western scholars and Buddhists; MB]

PiyadassiBuddhism in the Western WorldLincoln Forum Series No. 2, U.S.I.S., Colombo 1967.

Polichetti, Massimiliano A., “The Spread of Tibetan Buddhism in The West”, in: The Tibet Journal, 18, 3, 1993, pp. 65-67. [short and general, emphazising the importance of translations and personal encounters with lamas; MB]

Rahula, Sri Walpola, “The Problem of the Prospect of the Sangha in the West”, in: The Mahaa Bodhi, 82, 4/5, 1974, pp. 118-128.

SangharakshitaNew Currents in Western Buddhism, Glasgow: Windhorse 1990, 93 pp. [on the form and structure of a variety of Western Buddhism, portrayed by the founder of the FWBO; MB]

Schwab, RaymondLa Renaissance Orientale, Paris: Payot 1950; Engl. transl. The Oriental Renaissance. Europe’s Rediscovery of India and the East, 1680-1880, New York: Columbia University Press 1984. [the seminal work on the impact of the discovery of Indian religious thought on the cultural life of the West from the 18th century. Compendious and authoritative in its coverage. Includes discussion of Burnouf’s inauguration of Buddhist studies, Indic ideas in work by authors as varied as Novalis and Flaubert, and the “Buddhism” of Wagner. Schwab is complemented, not superceded, by Halbfass’s, India and Europe, 1988; IH]

Snelling, JohnThe Buddhist Handbook: A Complete Guide to Buddhist Teaching and Practise, London: Century Hutchinson 1987; German edition: Buddhism. Ein Handbuch fuer den westlichen Leser, Muenchen: Diederichs 1991; enclosing “Der Buddhismus im Westen”, pp. 255-344; [general overview of Buddhist developments and teachings; plus the spread of Buddhism to the West; focussed very much much on British developments; contains a very good and useful “Who’s Who in Buddhism”, pp. 345-430; MB]

Stuetzer, Lionel, “Der europaeische Buddhismus und seine Bekenner”, in: Vaisakha, 1948, pp. 8-10, reprinted in: Buddhistische Monatsblaetter, 31, 10, 1985, pp. 207-212. [entertaining and self-critical article on the particularities of how Buddhism has been adopted by the majority of Western converts; MB]

Takugai, S.The Buddhist Scholars of Europe and America, Obei-Bukkyoo-Gakusha-Den, Japan 1942.

Watanabe, KaikyokuBuddhism in Europe and America, Obei-no-Bukkyoo, Japan 1922.

Webb, Russell, “Buddhist Studies in the West”, in: Buddhist Quarterly (London Buddhist Vihaara), 6, 4, 1974, pp. 10-17. [positive review of Peiris’ The Western Contribution, 1973; plus a bibliography on ‘Buddhism and the West’ with about 85 titles; MB]

Welbon, Guy RichardThe Buddhist Nirvaana and Its Western Interpreters, Chicago 1968.

Yamamoto, KoshoBuddhism in Europe, Ube City: Karinbunko 1967, 81 pp. [very sketchy overview, based on the account of 5 months travel through Western Europe; interesting observations of the mid 1960s: ethnic and European Buddhists; lack of a well-organized sangha; Zen becoming en vogue in Europe; MB]

“The Buddha’s Long Shadow”, in: Time, 21.11. 1988, pp. 54-55. ** [very short although informative overview, 3 pictures; MB]



1. United Kingdom

Almond, Philip C.The British Discovery of Buddhism, Cambridge 1988. [detailed and well grounded description, how Victorian scholars in the 19th century discovered what they termed ‘Buddhism’; MB]

Batchelor, Stephen, “A Thai tradition grows in England”, in: Tricycle: The Buddhist Review, 3, 4, 1994, pp. 39-44. [nice, narrative description of Ajahn Sumedho’s Buddhist activities in England; on Ajahn Cha and the Chithurst Monastery in West Sussex; MB]

Buddhist Society, TheThe Buddhist Directory, London 1979, 2nd ed. London 1981, 3rd ed. London 1983, 4th ed. London 1987, 5th ed. London 1991, 6th ed. London 1994. [list of Buddhist centres, groups and organisations in the U.K. (in 1994 about 286) plus their addresses and a short comment; MB]

Connolly, Peter, “Buddhism in Britain”, in: Religion Today, 2, 2, 1985, pp. 3-6. [a short and general overview; MB]

Cousins, L. S., “Theravaada Buddhism in England”, in: Buddhism into the Year 2.000: International Conference Proceedings (First International Conference ‘Buddhism into the Year 2000′, hosted by the Dhammakaaya Foundation, Bangkok (Thailand), February 8th 1990), Bangkok: Dhammakaya Foundation 1995, pp. 141-150. [detailed and stimulating paper on British Buddhists of the Theravaada affiliation; instructive chronology from 19th century to 1990s; categorisation of membership of the first society; MB]

Cush, DeniseBuddhists in Britain Today, Norwich: Hodder& Stoughton 1990. [very short overview; contains ten interviews with British Buddhists of various affiliations; book designed for use in school; MB]

Cush, Denise, “British Buddhism and the New Age”, in: Journal of Contemporary Religion, 11, 2, 1996, pp. 195-208. [on the interrelation of Buddhism and New Age, based on interviews; outline of attitudes with a short section on importance of Theosophy; mainly descriptive, little analysis; MB]

Humphreys, ChristmasThe Development of Buddhism in England, London: Buddhist Society 1937.

Humphreys, Christmas, “Looking Back on Thirty Years of Buddhism in England”, in:Pr&eacutesence du Bouddhisme, Saigon 1959.

Humphreys, ChristmasSixty Years of Buddhism in England (1907-1967). A History and a Survey, London: Buddhist Society 1968, 84 pp. [detailed chronological survey, focusing on the Buddhist Society; MB]

Law, JudithThe religious beliefs and practices of the Vietnamese community in Britain,Community Religions Project Research Papers (NS) No. 9, University of Leeds 1991, 67 pp. [overview on Vietnamese refugees in Britain (22,000); short descriptive account of the only Vietnamese Buddhist temple, Linh Son in London; impressionistic; MB]

Mellor, Philip A., “Protestant Buddhism? The Cultural Translation of Buddhism in England”, in: Religion, 21, 2, 1991, pp. 73-92. [analytical and innovative article, although not without counter arguments; on the processes of adaptation of the FWBO and British Forest Sangha; MB]

Nakano, T., “Soka Gakkai and its Peace Movements”, in: Religion Today, 7, 2, 1992, S. 5-8. [useful and instructive description; MB]

Oliver, IanBuddhism in Britain, London: Rider & Company 1979, 223 pp. [good overview, rich in information; descriptive studies of particular groups/ schools; MB]

Puttick, Elisabeth, “‘Why has Bodhidharma left for the West?’ The Growth and Appeal of Buddhism in Britain”, in: Religion Today, 8, 2, 1993, pp. 5-10. [general overview and some analysis; MB]

Ratnaprabha, Dharmachari, “A re-emergence of Buddhism: the Case of the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order”, in: Peter Clarke (ed.), The New Evangelists, London 1987, pp. 57-75. [valuable account of missionary concept in Buddhism; on the FWBO and its ‘missionary’ activities; MB]

Scott, David, “Modern British Buddhism: Patterns and Directions”, seminar paper presented at the SOAS ‘Buddhist Forum’, Nov. 1995; to be printed in The Buddhist Forum (SOAS, London), manuscript 14 pp. [on general/ national and specific organisations; traditions of Buddhism in UK; on FWBO, the New Kadampa Tradition, English Sangha, Serene Reflection Meditation, Soka Gakkai; MB]

Scott, David, “Ecumenical Convergence across Modern British Buddhism: Fact or Fiction?”, Dec. 1996, manuscript 13 pp. [on Network of Buddhist Organisations, Buddhist Society, some Buddhist and academic associations; on various joint Buddhist activities in UK; setting these patterns into international, Western comparative context; MB]

Sheng, YenChan Retreat in the US and UK, Taipei: Tungchu chu pan she 1993, 124 pp.

Silk, Jonathan A., “The Victorian Creation of Buddhism. Philip C. Almond, The British Discovery of Buddhism, Cambridge 1988″, in: Journal of Indian Philosophy, 22, 1994, pp. 171-196.

Somers, Jeffrey, “Japanese Buddhism in Britain”, in: Religion Today, 6, 1, 1990, pp. 1-4. [Buddhism in Japan; just a bit on Japanese Buddhism in the U.K.; MB]

Somers, Jeffrey, “Tibetan Buddhism in Great Britain”, in: Religion Today, 6, 2, 1990, pp. 1-3. [Buddhism in Tibet; development of Tibetan Buddhism in the U.K.; MB]

Somers, Jeffrey, “Theravaada Buddhism in Great Britain”, in: Religion Today, 7, 1, 1991, pp. 4-7. [Buddhism in South Asia; beginnings and state of affairs of Theravaada Buddhism in the UK; MB]

Somers, Jeffrey, “Chinese Buddhism in Great Britain”, in: Religion Today, 8, 2, 1992, pp. 14-16. [Buddhism in China; on the rare occurrences of Chinese Buddhism in the U.K.; MB]

Sucitto, Bhikkhu, “Tore zum Todlosen. Gegenwaertige Entwicklung des Theravaada-Buddhismus in England”, in: Bodhi Baum, 1, 1987, pp. 35-37. [short report on the development of the English Forest Sangha; on Amaravati; MB]

Subhuti, Dharmachari (Kennedy, Alex)Buddhism for Today. A Portrait of a new Buddhist Movement, Glasgow: Windhorse 1983, 2nd ed. 1988, 234 pp. [descriptive outline of the growth and development of the 1967 founded Friends of the Western Buddhist Order, done by one of its leading order members; MB]

Subhuti, DharmachariBringing Buddhism to the West: A Life of Sangharakshita, Birmingham: Windhorse 1995, 202 pp.

Webb, Russell, “Short History of the Sangha in Britain”, in: World Buddhism, 18, 3, 1969, S. 63-65 u. S. 82. [short and useful overview; MB].

Weller, Paul (ed.), Religions in the UK: A Multi-Faith Directory, University of Derby 1993, pp. 73-138. [short overview; listing about 302 Buddhist groups, centres and organisations in the UK; MB]

Wilson, Bryan; Dobbelaere, KarelA Time to Chant: The Soka Gakkai Buddhists in Britain, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1994, 278 pp. [detailed study by two sociologists; interviews, analysis etc.; very good; MB]

University theses:

Bell, SandraBuddhism in Britain: Development and Adaptation, unpubl. Ph. D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Durham 1991 [general overview on Buddhism in the U.K. and in South Asia; plus a detailed description and analysis of the FWBO and British Forest Sangha; a bit lengthy; MB]

Benedict, BurtonMuslim and Buddhist Associations in London, M.A thesis (?), London 1954.

Church, AlisonBuddhist Groups in Britain: Adaptation and Development of Traditional Religious Forms within a Western Environment, unpubl. M.A. thesis, University of Manchester 1982. [good and comprehensive survey of Buddhism in England; field studies in 1980/81; good description and analysis of FWBO and British Forest Sangha; MB]

Cush, DeniseBuddhism in Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism in the West, unpubl. M.A. thesis, University of Lancaster 1977.

Ergardt, JanBuddhismen i England, thesis, University of Lund, 1970


Mellor, Philip A.The Cultural Translation of Buddhism: Problems of Theory and Method Arising in the Study of Buddhism in England, unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Comparative Religion, University of Manchester 1990.

Tucker, HilaryOpening the Mind to a Closed Alternative: A Sociological Study of Western Commitment to a Tibetan Buddhist Group, unpubl. M.A. thesis, University of Lancaster 1984.

Vorasak CandamittoBuddhist organisations in Great Britain, unpubl. M.A. thesis, University of Durham 1972 [sociological analysis; RW]


Journals (selection)

The Middle Way (Buddhist Society, London)

Dharma life (FWBO, successor of Golden Drum)

various journals by organisations of Tibetan Buddhism, Zen and Theravaada

2.2. Germany

Auster, Guido; Gnanawimala, A. Sri; Leu, Ralf (eds.), 50 Jahre Buddhistisches Haus, Berlin 1974. [collection of various essays with regard to Paul Dahlke and the ‘Buddhist House’ Berlin; MB]

Baumann, Martin, “Vom ‘Buddhistischen Katechismus’ zum ‘Buddhistischen Bekenntnis’ – Die ersten hundert Jahre Buddhismus in Deutschland”, in: Spirita – Zeitschrift fuer Religionswissenschaft, 4, 1, 1990, pp. 7-12. [short article on the historical development of Buddhism in Germany; brief analysis of the commonly agreed ‘Buddhist confession’; MB]


Baumann, Martin, “Buddhists in a Western Country. An outline of recent Buddhist developments in Germany”, in: Religion Today – A Journal of Contemporary Religions, 7, 1, 1991, pp. 1-4. [overview, information given on the German ‘Buddhist confession’; MB]


Baumann, MartinDeutsche Buddhisten: Geschichte und Gemeinschaften, Marburg: Diagonal 1993, 441 pp.; 2nd enlarged ed. 1995, 465 pp. [detailed and comprehensive study of the historical development of Buddhism in Germany, counting about 200 centres and groups in 1991; specialising on processes of adaptation; sociological analysis of the membership; theoretical contextualisation within the topic of religious change; MB].

Baumann, MartinDer buddhistische Orden Arya Maitreya Mandala: Religionswissenschaftliche Darstellung einer westlich-buddhistischen Gemeinschaft, series of Remid, Marburg: Diagonal-Verlag 1994, 38 pp. [outline of the history and organisation, the doctrines and practices of the AMM with special reference to the German situation; includes an interview with Advayavajra; MB].

Baumann, Martin, “The Transplantation of Buddhism to Germany – Processive Modes and Strategies of Adaptation”, in: Method & Theory in the Study of Religion, 6, 1, 1994, pp. 35-61. [theoretical sketch of processes and patterns which occur while transplanting a religious tradition into an alien cultural milieu; MB].

Baumann, Martin, “Ein buddhistisches Denkmal auf Sylt”, in: Lotusblaetter, 2, 1994, pp. 24-26; English version available. [historical article on a former Buddhist monument, erected by Paul Dahlke, on the Northsea island of Sylt; one picture; MB]


Baumann, Martin, “Adapting a Religion in a Foreign Culture: Rationalistic Interpretations of Buddhism in Germany”, in: Everding, Ulrich (ed.), Buddhism and Christianity: Interactions between East and West, Proceedings of the Symposium 18.-20.12.1993 in Kandy (Sri Lanka), Colombo: Goethe Institut Colombo 1995, pp. 72-100, two charts. [sketch of historical and contemporary developments of Buddhism in Europe; analysis of rationalist interpretation of Buddhist teaching by German Buddhists; on conceptual interaction between East – West/ Buddhism – Christianity; MB].

Baumann, Martin (ed.), Helmut Klar: Zeitzeuge zur Geschichte des Buddhismus in Deutschland, No. 11 of the series of the research project “Buddhist Modernism”, Konstanz: University of Konstanz 1995, 158 pp. [life portrait of a German Theravaada-Buddhist, born 1914; collection of nine historical and ‘Buddhist-practical’ articles on Buddhism in Austria and Germany; interview, text of recitation; 11 old pictures; MB].

Baumann, Martin, “Analytische Rationalisten und romantische Sucher: Motive der Konversion zum Buddhismus in Deutschland”, in: Zeitschrift fuer Missionswissenschaft und Religionswissenschaft, 79, 3, 1995, pp. 207-225. [analyses the social background and the motives for conversion of German Buddhists around the turn of the century; likewise looks at the contemporary picture; MB].

Baumann, Martin, “Die DBU in historischem Kontext und internationalem Vergleich”, in:Lotusblaetter, 3, 1995, pp. 35-38. [historic outline of the predecessors of the German Buddhist Union, founded 1955; comparative survey of similar developments in Europe, USA and Australia; MB]


Baumann, Martin, “Buddhismus als Beispiel von ‘importierter Religion’”, in: Lebensreform. Zur Kulturgeschichte deutscher Alternativbewegungen. Handbuch der Reformbewegungen, edited by Diethart Krebs, Juergen Reulecke, Wuppertal: Hammer 1996. [on the interaction of 19th/ early 20th century Buddhists and socio-cultural reform movements in Germany; MB].

Baumann, Martin, “Buddhistische Feste und Feiern in Deutschland”, in: Remid (ed.), Religionen feiern. Feste und Feiertage religioeser Gemeinschaften in Deutschland, Marburg: Diagonal 1997 (planned). [outline of Buddhist traditions and their feasts and festivals celebrated in Germany; MB]


Baumann, Martin, “Entsagung und Entselbstung. Eine Neuinterpretation des Lebens und Werkes des Buddhisten Paul Dahlke”, in: Living Faith. Lebendige religioese Wirklichkeit. Festschrift fuer Hans-Juergen Greschat, edited by Reiner Mahlke, Renate Pitzer-Reyl, Joachim Suess, Frankfurt: P. Lang 1997 (in press). [life portrait of Paul Dahlke, leading Buddhist during the 1920s; analyses his interpretation and practice of Buddhist doctrine in the light of the romantic ideals he favoured; MB]


Baumann, Martin, “Culture Contact and Valuation: Early German Buddhists and the Creation of a ‘Buddhism in Protestant Shape’”, paper presented at the conference “Contemporary Buddhism: Text and Context”, in: Numen, 44,1997 [outline of Buddhist developments in Germany; analysis of rationalist interpretation of Buddhist teaching by German Buddhists; theoretical considerations on the indigenisation of a foreign religious tradition; MB].

Behler, E., “Das Indienbild der deutschen Romantik”, in: Germanisch-Romanische Monatsschrift, 49, 1968, pp. 21-37.

Bergler, ManfredDie Anthropologie des Grafen Karlfried von Duerckheim im Rahmen der Rezeptionsgeschichte des Zen-Buddhismus in Deutschland, Erlangen 1981. [detailed study of Duerckheim and his special approach to Zen; MB]


Bergler, Manfred, “Zen-Buddhismus in Deutschland”, in: Zeitschrift fuer Religions- und Geistesgeschichte, 36, 1, 1984, pp. 39-52; reprinted as well in: Materialdienst, 47, 12, 1984, pp. 356-366. [non-chronological overview; strange typology and interpretation; MB]


Bitter, KlausKonversionen zum tibetischen Buddhismus: Eine Analyse religioeser Biographien, Goettingen: E. Oberdieck Verlag 1988, 355 pp. [Tibetan Buddhism in exile; outline of empirical methods: interview strategies; very interesting narrative interviews, how converts became involved in Tibetan Buddhism; unfortunately, contains no generalisation of conversion patterns; well grounded and useful study; MB].

Blume, Michael; Kantowsky, Detlef (eds.), Assimilation, Integration, Isolation: Fallstudien zum Eingliederungsprozess suedostasiatischer Fluechtlinge in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 2 Vols., Koeln 1988. [very detailed study; also some interviews with Vietnamese Buddhist refugees in Germany; MB].

Buttler, Paul-Gerhardt, “Die buddhistische Bewegung in Deutschland”, in: Kurt Hutten, Siegfried von Kortzfleisch, (eds.), Asien missioniert im Abendland, Stuttgart: Kreuz-Verlag 1962, pp. 73-120. [good and fair overview of the history of Buddhism in Germany up to the early 1960’s, mine of information; MB]


Deutsche Buddhistische UnionDie Deutsche Buddhistische Union (DBU) und ihre Mitglieder in Selbstdarstellungen, Muenchen: DBU 1991, 71pp. [self-presentation of the 27 members of the ‘German Buddhist Union’, in 1991; much information on the groups themselves; MB]


Dumolin, Heinrich, “Das Buddhismusbild deutscher Philosophen des 19. Jahrhunderts”, in:Zeitschrift fuer katholische Theologie, 101, 1979, pp. 386-401; Engl. translation as “Buddhism and Nineteenth Century German Philosophy”, in: Journal of the History of Ideas, 92, 3, 1981. [outline of perception and interpretation of Buddhism by Schopenhauer, Nietzsche etc.; MB].

Falke, RobertDer Buddhismus in unserem modernen deutschen Geistesleben: Eine Studie, Halle an der Saale 1903. [portrait of Buddhist activities by a Christian apologetic; MB]


Gennrich, PaulModerne buddhistische Propaganda und indische Wiedergeburtslehre in Deutschland, Leipzig: A Deichertsche Verlagsbuchhandlung W. Scholl 1914, 52 pp. [Protestant apologetical treatment of early Buddhist activities in Germany; MB].

Glasenapp, Helmuth von, “Schopenhauer und Indien”, in: 36. Schopenhauer-Jahrbuch fuer das Jahr 1955, Frankfurt am Main 1955, pp. 32-48.

Glasenapp, Helmuth vonDas Indienbild deutscher Denker, Stuttgart 1960, 241 pp. [detailed and learned study; MB].

Glawe, Walther, “Buddhistische Stroemungen der Gegenwart”, in: Biblische Zeit- und Streitfragen zur Aufklaerung der Gebildeten, VIII, 12, Berlin-Lichterfelde 1913, pp. 419-456 [Christian apologetical account of Buddhist activities around the turn of the century; MB]

Gupta, N., “The Influence of Buddhism on German Literature”, in: India and World Literature, proceedings of an international symposium new Delhi 1985, New Delhi: ICCR 1990, pp. 322-326.

Hecker, HellmuthChronik des Buddhismus in Deutschland, 3rd extended edition, Plochingen: Deutsche Buddhistische Union 1985 134 pp. [very detailed historical survey; mine of information; MB].

Hecker, Hellmuth, “Der erste deutsche Buddhist – Leben und Werk Karl Eugen Neumanns”, in: Bodhi Baum, 10, 5, 1985, pp. 195-216. [detailed study of Neumann; best informed author on the topic; MB].

Hecker, HellmuthKarl Eugen Neumann, Erstuebersetzer der Reden des Buddha, Anreger zu abendlaendischer Spiritualitaet, Wien: Octopus 1986. [very detailed and well informed study of Neumann; his life and writings; MB].

Hecker, HellmuthLebensbilder deutscher Buddhisten: Ein bio-bibliographisches Handbuch, 2 Vols., No. 1 and No. 5 of the series of the research project “Buddhist Modernism”, Konstanz: University of Konstanz 1990 und 1992, 179 pp. and 311 pp.; reprint of No. 1 as No. 13 in 1996, 214 pp. [most interesting and detailed biographies of 128 German Buddhists plus their publications; absolute mine of information!; MB].

Hecker, Hellmuth, “40 Jahre Deutsche Buddhistische Union. Beitrag zum Konvent der Deutschen Buddhistischen Union in Muenchen am 28. Oktober 1995″, in: Internationales Asienforum, 27, 1-2, 1996, pp. 143-158. [detailed historic outline of the founding and establishment of the Buddhist umbrella organisation ‘German Buddhist Union’; MB].

Kantowsky, Detlef, “Buddhismus in Deutschland heute”, in: Spirita – Zeitschrift fuer Religionswissenschaft, 5, 1, 1991, pp. 22-32. [good descriptive and analytical article on Buddhist developments during the 1980’s; focusing on developments of the ‘German Buddhist Union’; MB].

Kantowsky, DetlefWegzeichen – Gespraeche ueber buddhistische Praxis mit: Nyaanaponika Mahaathera, Karl-Heinz Gottmann, …, No. 4 of the series of the research project “Buddhist Modernism”, Konstanz: University of Konstanz 1991, 235 pp.; enlarged reprint as No. 2 in series of the University of Ulm, Ulm: UKAS 1994, 267pp. [interesting interviews with ten leading Buddhists, all (except Nyaanaponika) living in the West; their adoption of Buddhism, their activities and plans; reprint enlarged with an essay on ‘Buddhist Modernism in the West’ and interview with Kantowsky; MB].

Kantowsky, DetlefDer Weg der weissen Wolken: Texte, Bilder und Dokumente aus Dem Leben von Lama Anagarika Govinda (1898-1985), No.12 of the series of the research project “Buddhist Modernism”, Konstanz: University of Konstanz 1996, 233pp., 10 b/w pictures, reprint of documents [life portrait of Govinda by Advayavajra, reprint of ten articles, bibliography; personal documents and letters. The volume offers some hitherto unknown facts and details of the rich life of Govinda, founder of the order Arya Maitreya Mandala; MB].

Mildenberger, MichaelHinduismus – Buddhismus – Islam in Deutschland, Information No. 53, Stuttgart: Ev. Zentralstelle fuer Weltanschauungsfragen 1973, 28 pp.

Mildenberger, Michael, “‘Religioeser Humanismus’. Zum europaeischen Erbe im deutschen Buddhismus”, in: Guenter Kehrer (ed.), Zur Religionsgeschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Muenchen: Koesel 1980, pp. 49-76. [instructive, sometimes critical article on Buddhists in Germany; useful typologies and differentiations of membership and waves of adoption; MB].

Notz, Klaus-JosefDer Buddhismus in Deutschland in seinen Selbstdarstellungen: Eine religionswissenschaftliche Untersuchung zur religioesen Akkulturationsproblematik, Frankfurt am Main, Bern, New York: Peter Lang 1984. [detailed historical description based on archival material; analysis of the creation of a Western-Buddhist linguistic territory; MB].

Roemer, Hermann, “Die Propaganda fuer asiatische Religionen im Abendland”, in: Basler Missions-Studien, Heft 36, Basel 1910, S. 153-205.[rich on information, nevertheless a Christian apologetical discussion of Buddhist activities around the turn of the century; MB].

Schumann, Hans WolfgangBuddhism and Buddhist Studies in Germany, Rangoon: West German Embassy 1970, 44 pp.; in German: Buddhismus und Buddhismusforschung in Deutschland, Godesberg 1972, Vienna 1974. [overview of historical developments plus the scholarly study of Buddhism in Germany; MB].

Schmidt, WalterDie “Fremdreligion” in Deutschland: Hinduismus – Buddhismus – Islam, Stuttgart: Ev. Zentralstelle fuer Weltanschauungsfragen 1971, 24 pp.

Seidenstuecker, KarlDie Greuel der “christlichen” Zivilisation, Leipzig 1903, (published under the pseudonym Bruno Freydank) [fierce attack on Christianity, esp. Protestantism, by one of the leading early Buddhists in Germany; MB].

Seidenstuecker, Karl, “Die Weltmission des Buddhismus und das Abendland”, in:Buddhistische Warte, 3. Jhg., 1/2, 1911, S. 2-34. [portrait of Buddhism as most appropriate to fill the philosophical and religious gap in Europe; MB].

Slepcevic, PeroBuddhismus in der deutschen Literatur, Vienna 1920.

Usarski, Frank, “Das Bekenntnis zum Buddhismus als Bildungsprivileg. Strukturmomente ‘lebensweltlicher’ Theravaada-Rezeption in Deutschland waehrend des Zeitraums zwischen 1888 und 1924″, in: Peter Antes, Donate Pahnke (eds.), Die Religion von Oberschichten, Marburg: Diagonal-Verlag 1989, pp. 75-86. [study of early German Buddhists; useful differentiation of five phases of adaption from late 19th century to late 1980s; MB].

Usarski, Frank, “Hinduistische und buddhistische Stroemungen in Deutschland – Ein historischer Ueberblick”, in: Christliches ABC, Ergaenzungslieferung 6/1991, Gruppe 4, 1991, pp. 33-47. [historical overview of Buddhist and Hindu movements and groups in Germany; using a five-phase model to differentiate the chronological developments; MB].

Waldschmidt, Ernst, “The Influence of Buddhism on German Philosophy and Poetry”, in:University of Ceylon Review, 22, 1, 1963, pp. 1-13.

Zotz, Volker, “Einige Anmerkungen zum Buddhismus-Bild deutschsprachiger Denker”, in:Bodhi Baum, 11, 2/3, 1986, pp. 72-82. [detailed and well grounded description and analysis of 18th and 19th century philosophers and their encounter with/ perception of Buddhism; MB].

Zotz, Volker, “‘Das Erzeugnis warmer Klimate’. Zum Werden des Buddhismus-Bildes deutscher Philosophen und Historiker”, in: Hoorin. Vergleichende Studien zur japanischen Kultur, 1, 1994, pp. 169-183. [description and analysis of 18th century philosophers and their perception of Buddhism; also of 19th and early 20th century historians: Koeppen, Chamberlain, Spengler, Steiner, Schopenhauer; well grounded; MB].

University theses:

Henkel, RolfDie Neubuddhistische Bewegung in Deutschland und Europa und ihre europaeischen Vertreter im Osten, unpubl. MA thesis, University of Washington 1930, 80 pp..

Firnkes, Marc M.Zen-Centre for Oriental Studies and Culture, unpubl. B.A. thesis, Roger Williams College 1991, 83 pp. [on the Zen Centre for Oriental Studies and Culture in Munich, Germany; contains designs and plans; IH].

Saalfrank, EvaBuddhismus aus Tibet in Deutschland? Eine empirische Studie am Beispiel der Kagyue-Schule, unpubl. Ph. D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Ulm 1994; considered for publication in 1995, probably by Diagonal-Verlag, Marburg, ca. 450 pp. [detailed ethnographic study of Karma-Kagyue tradition in Germany; Karma-Kagyu portraited and analysed as a subcultural phenomenon; interviews and field studies; MB].

Steinke, UlrichKarl Bernhard Seidenstuecker, Leben – Schaffen – Wirken, unpubl. M. A. thesis, Department of Religious Studies, Tuebingen 1989. [interesting portrayal of an important early Buddhist; detailed biography; his Buddhist writings and activities; solid work; MB].

Zotz, VolkerZur Rezeption, Interpretation und Kritik des Buddhismus im deutschen Sprachraum vom Fin de Si&egravecle bis 1930, unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Vienna 1986. [detailed study of adoption of Buddhism in late 19th/ early 20th century; much information; MB].

Journals (selection)

Lotusblaetter (quarterly published by the ‘German Buddhist Union, Munich)

various journals of all traditions;, a survey is provided in Hellmuth HeckerLebensbilder deutscher Buddhisten, Vol. 1, Konstanz: University of Konstanz 1990, pp. 164-178 and H. Hecker, “Deutsche Buddhistische Zeitschriften”, supplement of Buddhistische Monatsblaetter, 11/12, 1993.

2.3. France

Ang, Chouléan; Tan, Yinh Phong, “Le monast&egravere Khemararam espace identitaire de la communaut&eacute Khm&egravere”, in: Matras-Guin, Jacqueline; Taillard, Christian (eds.),Habitations et Habitat d’Asie du Sud-Est Continentale. Pratiques et Repr&eacutesentations de l’Espace, Paris: L’Harmattan 1992, pp. 285-302.

Barbarin, E., “Le Bouddhisme en France: ‘Les Amis du Bouddhisme’”, in: Pr&eacutesence du Bouddhisme, Saigon 1959, p.p. ??.

Bies, E.Literature francaise et pensee hindoue, des origines a 1950, Paris: C.Klincksieck 1974.

Choron-Baix, Catherine, “De For&ecircts en banlieues. La Transplantation du Bouddhisme Lao en France”, in: Archives de sciences sociales des religions, 36, 73, 1991, pp. 17-33. [good anthropological study of Laotian Buddhists living as refugees in France since 1975; on restoration of rites at the family and temple level plus founding of monasteries; states that 150,000 French Buddhists and about 40,000-50,000 Laotian (mainly Buddhists) live in France; 115,693 refugees from Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos lived in France in 1987; MB].

Choron-Baix, Catherine, “Espace social et exil: les r&eacuteseaux de sociabilit&eacute des Lao en France”, in: Matras-Guin, Jacqueline; Taillard, Christian (eds.), Habitations et Habitat d’Asie du Sud-Est Continentale. Pratiques et Repr&eacutesentations de l’Espace, Paris: L’Harmattan 1992, pp. 257-283.

“Chroniques de l’union bouddhiste de France, Les”, in: Dharma, 1, 1988. [not yet confirmed].

Dhammarangsi, “A la rencontre de la communaut&eacute khm&egravere de France”, in:Sangha (Paris), 2, 1991, pp. 10-15. [short survey of the state of affairs of the about 90,000 Buddhist Cambodians in France; three main pagodas; several pictures; Ven. Samdech Bour Kry at Cr&eacuteteil; MB].

Dhammarangsi, “Le bouddhisme khm&egravere en Europe et en France”, in: Sangha (Paris), 2, 1991, pp. 16-22. [brief survey of Buddhist Cambodians in France, Germany, Switzerland and Belgium; several pictures; MB].

Gira, DennisComprende le Bouddhisme, Paris: Ed. Centurion 1989, enclosing “La pr&eacutesence bouddhiste en France”, pp. 186-197 [short and useful overview of Buddhist activities in France in late 1980’s; listing about 70 Zen and 60 Tibetan centres and groups; about 400-500 small, local Soka Gakkai groups (= 6.000 members); on South Asian Buddhists in France; gives no historical account; MB].

Gira, Dennis, “Pour comprendre ‘les bouddhismes’ en occident”, in: Lumi&egravere & Vie, 38, 193, 1989, pp.. 5-17. [overview of Buddhist developments and teaching; nothing specially for France; MB].

Gira, Dennis, “La Pr&eacutesence Bouddhiste en France (1991)”, in: Documents Episcopat. Bulletin du ser&eacutetariat de la conf&eacuterence des &eacutev&egravegues de France, No. 13, Sept. 1991, 16 pp. [survey of Buddhism in France with regard to the present day situation: on Asian and French Buddhists and the various schools; on Buddhism in general; gives concrete numbers; MB].

Hommes et Migrations, No. 1171: “Le bouddhisme en France”, D&eacutec. 1993. [not yet confirmed].

Kalab, Milada, “Cambodian Buddhist Monasteries in Paris: Continuing Tradition and Changing Patterns”, in: May M. Ebihara, Carol A. Mortland, Judy Ledgerwood (eds.),Cambodian Culture since 1975: Homeland and Exile, Ithaca, London: Cornell University Press 1994, pp. 57-71. [descriptive account and comparison of Cambodian Buddhism in France and in Cambodia: pagodas, organisation, supporters, donation and money, women, rituals and festivals; contrary to the title very little theoretical consideration; MB].

Migrations et Pastorale, No. 198, March-April 1989 (?). Paris. [not yet confirmed].

Migrations et Pastorales (series), 1990, “Bouddhistes en France”, Paris. [not yet confirmed].

Modehn, Christian, “Buddhismus in Frankreich”, in: Udo und Monika Tworuschka (eds.),Religionen der Welt. Grundlagen, Entwicklung und Bedeutung in der Gegenwart, Muenchen, Guetersloh: Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag 1992, pp. 338. [short overview, numbers: about 600,000 Asian and French Buddhists; on Mahaayaana- und Theravaada centres; MB].

Modehn, ChristianReligion in Frankreich. Darstellung und Daten zu Geschichte und Gegenwart, Guetersloh: Guetersloher Verlags-Haus 1993 (GTB 632); on Buddhism see pp. 145-149 [short narrative; MB].

Paasaadika, “Buddhist Monasticism in European Culture with special Reference to France”, in: Sulak Sivaraksa et al. (eds.), Radical Conservatism. Buddhism in the Contemporary World, Articles in Honour of Bhikkhu Buddadasa’s 84th Birthday Anniversary, Bangkok: Thai Inter-Religious Commission for Development and the International Network of Engaged Buddhists 1990, pp. 422-432; reprinted in: Buddhism into the Year 2.000. International Conference Proceedings, Bangkok: Dhammakaya Foundation 1995, pp. 131-140. [mainly on the Vietnamese Linh-Son monastery and its abbot Bhikkhu Thich Huyen-Vi; MB].

Tran Thi Nhung, “Aspects du bouddhisme vi&ecirctnamien en france”, in: Lumi&egravere & Vie, 38, 193, 1989, pp. 19-30. [development of Buddhism in France with special reference to Vietnamese pagodas, their festivals and rites; a little general; MB].

University theses:

Flach, JeanetteUntersuchung zum Buddhismus der Kagyue-Schule in Frankreich, unpubl. diploma thesis, Department of Linguistics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz 1990.

Le Huv KoaLes Vi&ecirctnamiens en France: la dialectique insertion/ identit&eacute. Le processus d’immigration depuis la colonisation jusqu’&agrave l’implantation de r&eacutefugi&eacutes, th&egravese de doctorat de l’universit&eacute de Nice, D&eacutepartment Lettres de Sciences Humaines, 1983, dactylographie, 405 p

Journals (selection)

Dharma (journal of the ‘Buddhist Union of France’, published by Karma Ling, Arvillard)

Various journals by organisations of Tibetan and Zen tradtions.

2.4. Austria

Bodhi Baum Jahrbuch, ed. by the ‘Dr. Walter Karwath Society’, Vienna: Octopus 1995 and 1996, ca. 300 pp. [annual handbook, giving information on Buddhist life and activities in the German speaking area: Buddhist reflections, articles and activities, calendar, addresses; MB].

Dibelka, Peter, “Die Entwicklung des Buddhismus in Oesterreich”, in: Ursache und Wirkung, 4, 1992, pp. 10-14. [useful as a first short overview; MB].

Fenzl, Friedrich, “35 Jahre Shin-Buddhismus in Deutschland und Oesterreich”, in: Bodhi Baum, 15, 4, 1990, pp. 32-35.

.Halbrainer, Heimo, “Buddhist Innen: Ein Stupa im Volksgarten”, in: Stenner, Christian (ed.),Fremde Heimat Graz, Graz: Styria 1995, pp. 121-130. [essayistic description of Buddhist activities in Graz; on the Gelup and Kagyu centres; about the Austrian Karma-Kagyu nun Eleonore Dandl (born 1935), nun since 1988; MB].

Hecker, Hellmuth, “Buddhisten im alten Oesterreich”, in: Bodhi Baum, 18, 2, 1993, pp. 16-19. [interesting and instructive information on the initial adoption of Buddhism; on Karl Eugen Neumann; MB].

Hutter, Manfred, “Nirwana statt Himmel. Buddhismus in Oesterreich”, in: Die Furche, No. 49, 9.12.1993, pp. 25. [very short overview, mainly giving an outline of a symposium; stating the number of 5,000 Buddhists in Austria; MB].

Klar, Helmut, “Der Buddhismus in Oesterreich nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg”, in: Bodhi Baum, 4, 1, 1979, pp. 17-19. [short, impressionistic overview; MB].

Luzny, Dusan, “Buddhismus v Rakousku”, in: Religio-Revue pro Religionsistiku, 3, 1, 1995, pp. 79-84. (‘Buddhism in Austria’, article in Czech). [general survey of development and adoption of Buddhism in Austria; listing main proponents and societies; MB].

Ritter, Franz, “Austro-Buddhismus. Eine kleine Geschichte des Buddhismus in Oesterreich”, in: Bodhi Baum, 18, 2, 1993, pp. 4-10. [good and interesting outline of Buddhist developments in Austria; MB].

Zotz, Volker, see the entries under ‘Germany’

University theses:

Dibelka, PeterBuddhisten in Oesterreich. Alltagsbewaeltigung und Sinnzusammenhang, unpubl. diploma thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Graz 1990, 272 pp. [includes data from interviews and participant observation; although lengthy, many points are left out; needs better structuring; MB].

Poier, WolfgangBuddhismusrezeption in der oesterreichischen Moderne, unpubl. M. A. thesis, Department of History, University of Graz 1990, 115 pp. [adoption of Buddhism in late 19th century by Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Wagner; nothing new; MB].

Journals (selection)

Ursache und Wirkung (quarterly published by the ‘Austrian Buddhist Religion’s Society, Vienna)

Some journals of specific centres and groups

2.5. Switzerland

Claes Corlin, “The Lama and the Jumbo-Jet: Report on a Tibetan Meditation-Group in Switzerland”, in: Ethnos; 42, 3-4, 1977, pp. 149-155. [short field report on a group of Tibetan refugees, its members belonging to the Nyingma order. In Switzerland the majority of Tibetans adhere to the Gelug order and visiting Nyingma lamas have to come from abroad; description of a lama’s visit and portrait of a family; MB].

R&eacutepertoire des Centres Bouddhistes en Suisse, ed. by Marianne P&eacuterier-Chappuis, Yverdon: Fleury 1993. [list of the about 80 Buddhist centres in Switzerland; arrangement according to geographical distribution, i. e. cities and towns; contact address: Mme Marianne P&eacuterier-Chappuis, avenue de la Harpe 17A, 1007 Lausanne; MB].

Aeschimann, C.Aufnahme von Tibeter Kindern durch Schweizer Familien – Bericht vom Ende, Montreaux 1978.

Barloecher, DanielTestimonies of Tibetan Tulkus: A Research among Reincarnate Buddhist Masters in Exile, 2 Vols., Rikon bei Zuerich 1982.

Brauen, Martin; Kantowsky, Detlef (Hg.), Junge Tibeter in der Schweiz. Studien zum Prozess kultureller Identifikation, Duessenhofen 1982.

Chokteng, K.P.; Gyaltag, G.20 Jahre Tibeter im Pestalozzidorf Trogen, Trogen 1981.

Gyaltsen Gyaltag, K. GyaltagJugend im Exil, edited by ‘Verein Tibeter Jugend in Europa’ (Festschrift), Zuerich 1980.

Gyaltsen GyaltagTibeter in der Schweiz, Baden 1981.

Gyaltsen Gyaltag, “Tibet heute-Leben zwischen Anpassung und Selbstbestimmung”, in: Mueller, Claudius C.; Raunig, Walter (eds.), Der Weg zum Dach der Welt, Innsbruck: Pinguin 1982, pp. 398-406, esp. pp. 402-406. [short, but instructive survey of Tibetan refugees in Switzerland; MB].

Ott-Marti, Anna-ElisabethTibeter in der Schweiz: Kulturelle Verhaltensweisen im Wandel, Erlenbach-Zuerich 1971.

Ott-Marti, Anna-ElisabethM, “Probleme der Integration von Tibetern in der Schweiz”, in:Opuscula Tibetana Fasc. 11, Zuerich-Rikon 1980.


A few regular letters of specific centres and groups

2.6. The Netherlands

Gemert, Victor vanBoeddhisme in Nederland: overzicht van boeddhistische stromingen in Nederland en Belgi, Nijmegen: Zen-uitgeverij Theresiahoeve 1990, updated 1993. [most detailed and comprehensive study of the various groups; mine of information; MB].

Gorkom, Nina vanLetters from Holland on Buddhism, Dhamma Study and Propagation Foundation, issue 4, 1991, 36 pp.

Jannsen, R. H. C., “Buddhism in the Netherlands: History and Present Status”, in: Buddhism into the Year 2.000. International Conference Proceedings (First International Conference ‘Buddhism into the Year 2000′, hosted by the Dhammakaaya Foundation, Bangkok (Thailand), February 8th 1990), Bangkok: Dhammakaya Foundation 1995, pp. 151-156.

Kranenborg, R., “Boeddhisme in Nederland: een overzicht”, in: Religieuze bewegingen in Nederland: Feiten en visies, 23, 1991, pp. 121-136. [short overview, based on van Gemert’s study of 1990; names 38 groups, addresses plus short description; no history or contextualisation, however; MB].

Schuur, Margje, “Buddhismus in den Niederlanden”, in: Lotusblaetter, 3/1992, pp. 46-48. [brief overview, giving some interesting information; based on van Gemert’s study of 1990; MB].

Stoffels, H. C., “Wegwijzer in boeddhistisch Nederland”, in: Religieuze bewegingen in Nederland: Feiten en visies, 7, 1983, pp. 77-83 [lists 22 Buddhist groups; MB].

Tydeman, N., “Zen-Boeddhisme in Nederlande. Enkele persoonlijke indrukken”, in: Religieuze bewegingen in Nederland, 7, 1983, pp. 25-38.


Some journals of specific centres and schools

2.7. Belgium

Gemert, Victor vanBoeddhisme in Nederland: overzicht van boeddhistische stromingen in Nederland en Belgi’, Nijmegen: Zen-uitgeverij Theresiahoeve 1990, updated 1993. [detailed study of the various groups; MB].

Peel, Adrian, “Past, present and future of Buddhism in Belgium”, in: Pr&eacutesence du Bouddhisme, Saigon 1959.

2.8. Italy

Benavides, Gustavo, “Guiseppe Tucci, or Buddhism in the Age of Fascism”, in: Donald S. Lopez , Jr. (ed.), Curators of the Buddha, Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1995, pp. 161-196 [a detailed and comprehensively documented analysis of Tucci’s fascination for the Zen warrior ethic set against the fascist background of Italy in the early 1940s; IH].

Botto, Oscar, “Appunti per una storia degli studi buddhisti in Italia”, in: Orientalia Iosephi Tucci Memoria Dicata, ed. by G. Gnoli, Rome 1985 (SOR 56), pp. 175-189.

Cornolli, GiampieroBuddisti d’Italia. Vaggio tra nuovi moviventi spirituali, Rome, Napoli: Theorie 1995. [journalistic-essayistic account of recent interest in Buddhism in Italy; MB].

Fal&agrave, Maria Angela, “Buddhismus in Italien”, in: Lotusblaetter, 3/1992, pp. 44-46. [short overview with much information; MB].

Fal&agrave, Maria Angela, “Buddhism in Italy”, unpubl. draft, 13 pp., no date (about early 1990s) [useful survey of historical and contemporary developments; gives the figure of 10,000 Buddhists from Asia and 30,000 Italian Buddhists for the late 1980s; MB].

Fal&agrave, Maria Angela, “Il Buddhismo in Italia”, in: Rahula, Walpola, L’insegnamento del Buddha, transl. by Maria Angela Fal&agrave (What the Buddha Taught, London 1959), 2nd ed. Rome: Edizioni Paramita 1994 (1st ed. 1984), Appendix: pp. 121-131 [broad and informative overview, gives a figure of 20,000 Buddhists from Asia; plus addresses of 51 centres and organisations; MB].

Lena, Vicenzina, “Il pi&ugrave insigne studioso di culture orientali. Giuseppe Tucci”, in:Occidente Buddhista, 1, 2, 1996, pp. 48-55. [a short but meaningful outline of the life of a world-renowned orientalist, fond of travelling and founder of IsMEO; journal’s comment].

~Naa.najiivako, Bhikkhu, “The Technicalisation of Buddhism: Fascism and Buddhism in Italy, Giuseppe Tucci – Julius Evola”, in: Buddhist Studies Review, 6, 1, 1989, pp. 27-38 and pp. 102-115 and 7, 1-2, 1990, pp. 3-17. [extended discussion of Evola’s Doctrine of Awakening as a ‘technicalisation’ of Buddhism; in part I little bit on Tucci on his ambivalent role within Italian Fascism; MB].

Journals (selection)

Paramita (quarterly published by the ‘Maitreya Foundation’ in association with the ‘Buddhist Union of Italy’, Rome)

Occidente Buddhista (monthly, new ‘glossy magazine’ with a wide distribution, since 1996)

various journals of specific centres, schools and traditions.

2.9. Hungary

Baumann, Martin “Gegenwaertige Entwicklungen des Buddhismus in Ungarn”, in: Zeitschrift fuer Missionswissenschaft und Religionswissenschaft, 78, 1, 1994, pp. 38-46; English translation available. [historic-descriptive overview of Buddhist activities in Hungary since the turn of the century; giving a survey of the state of affairs in 1993; stating 12 different groups, all localized in Budapest; MB].

Duka, TheodoreLife and Writings of Alexander Csoma de Koeroes, London 1885.

Lenard, Eugen (L&eacutenard, Jenoe), “Buddhismus in Ungarn”, in: Die Buddhistische Welt(Breslau), 4, 10/11, 1911, pp. 220-226. [early, vague account; MB].

Lenard, Eugen (L&eacutenard, Jenoe), “Buddhistische Spuren in der Literatur des Balkan”, in:Die Buddhistische Welt (Breslau), 5, 1911/ 1912, pp. 51-63.

Raju, R.K.A Mystic Link with India: Life Story of two Pilgrim Painters of Hungary, New Delhi: Allied Publishers 1991, 71 pp., 32 pp. of plates. [on the lives and works of Elizabeth Sass Brunner, 1890-1950, and her daughter Elizabeth Brunner, b. 1910; IH].

Webb, Russell, “Buddhism in Hungary”, in: Buddhist Quarterly, 2, 2, 1969, pp. 7-10 [first and instructive account of Buddhism in Hungary; MB].

2.10. Poland and Czechoslovakia

Ablamowicz-Borri, Malgorzata, “L’introduction du bouddhisme en Pologne”, in: Buddhist Studies: Present and Future, ed. by. Ananda W.P. Gurug&eacute, Paris 1992, pp. 6-8.

Dokt&oacuter, Tadeusz “Buddhism in Poland”, unpublished paper 1993. [short survey and sociological analysis of membership; MB].

[no author].: “Poland”, in: The Middle Way, 64, 3, 1989, pp. 191-192. [short description of present day activities; gives the figure of 5.000 Buddhists; MB].

Luszny, Dusan, “The Influence of Asian Religions in Czechoslovakia after 1989″, in: Dai Kangsheng, Zhang Xinying, Michael Pye (eds.), Religion and Modernization in China. Proceedings of the Regional Conference of the IAHR held in beijing, China, April 1992, Cambridge: Roots and Branches 1995, pp. 161-166.

Ratnajinendra, M. R., “Czechoslovakia’s Growing Interest in Buddhism”, in: World Buddhism, (Dehiwala), 17, 2, 1968, pp. 50.

Werner, Karel, “Buddhism in Czechoslovakia: Attempt to form Group”, in: World Buddhism, (Dehiwala), 13, 1, 1964, pp. 5-6.

Werner, Karel, “Problems of Buddhism in Czechoslovakia”, in: World Buddhism, (Dehiwala), 13, 6, 1965, pp. 7-8.

Werner, Karel, “Interest in Buddhism in Czechoslovakia”, in: The Middle Way, 15, May, 1965, 1 pp.

2.11. (former) Soviet Union

Andreev, Aleksandr IvanovichBuddiiskaia sviatynia Petrograda (Buddhist Shrine of Petrograd), Ulan-Ude: Agentstvo EkoArt 1992, 124 pp.

Batchelor, Stephen, “Bidiya Dandaron: Russian Connections”, in: Stephen Batchelor, The Awakening of the West: The Encounter of Buddhism and Western Culture, Berkeley, Cal.: Parallax Press and London: Aquarian, Harper & Collins 1994, pp. 283-302. [good and informative account of historic developments of Buddhism in Russia: Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhism of Buryatian and Kalmykian people; on persecution of Buddhists and scholars during the 1930s and 1940s; on the state of affairs in the early 1990s; MB].

Belka, Lubos, “The Restoration of Buryat Buddhism: Some Notes about Monasteries”, in:Religio – Revue pro Religionsistiku, 2, 1, 1994, pp. 92-106. [outline of early history of Buddhism in Russia with special reference to Buryatia (South and East of Lake Baikal); report on an expedition to Buryatia and its Buddhist monasteries in 1993, short portraits of 20 Buryat monasteries (datsan and dugan); listing 56 centres and monasteries in total; four pictures, three charts, one map; instructive overview and many references to Russian literature; MB].

Belka, Lubos, “Buddhismus v Estonsku”, in: Religio – Revue pro Religionsistiku, 4, 1, 1996, pp. 89-94. (‘Buddhism in Estonia’, article in Czech).

Bormanshinov, ArashLama Arkad Chubanov, his Predecessors and Successors: A Study of the History of the Kalmyk Lamaist Church in the Don Cossacks Region of Russia, College Park, Md: Birchbark Press 1980, 41 pp.

Braeker, Hans, “Der Buddhismus in der Sowjetunion”, in: Cahier du monde russe et sovi&eacutetique, 22, 2/3, 1981, pp. 329-338. [not yet confirmed].

Candle in the Wind: Religion in the Soviet Union, Washington, DC: Ethics and Public Policy Center 1989, 328 pp. [contains various articles on persecution of religious bodies in Soviet Union, among them Buddhist, Islamic and Jewish organisations; MB].

Dandaron, Bidiia Dandarovich99 pisem o buddizme i liubvi, 1956-1959, Sankt Petersburg: Datsan Gunzechoinei 1995, 347 pp.

Ermochkine, NikolaiLe Bouddhisme en U.R.S.S., Moscow: Presse Novosti 1966; probably also an Engl. version as Buddhism and Buddhists in the USSR, Moscow 1967, 54 pp.

Kolarz, Walter, “Buddhism in the Soviet Union”, in: World Buddhism, 11, 7, 2, 1963, 7/22. [not yet confirmed].

Lamaizm v Buriatii XVII-nachala XX veka: struktura i sotsialnaia rol kultovoi sistemy, Novosibirsk: Izd-vo “Nauka”, Sibirskoe otd-nie 1983, 232 pp. [on history of Buddhism in the Russian Federation, esp. in Buriatiia; IH].

Nikitin, A., “Buddhism in the Soviet Union”, in: Bulletin Secretarius pro non christianis, 25, 1, 1990, pp. 32-29. [not yet confirmed].

Norbu, Thupten J., “Dorjiev: Memoirs of a Tibetan Diplomat”, in: Hokke-bunka kenkyuu 17, 1991, pp. 1-105.

Poppe, N., “The Destruction of Buddhism in the USSR”, in: Bulletin of the Institute for the Study of the USSR, 1956, pp.

Schilling, Heinz-DieterReligionen unterm roten Stern: Christen, Moslems, Juden und Buddhisten in der Sowjetunion, Koeln 1988.

Sharpor, E. D., “Buddhism in the Soviet Union, in: World Buddhism, 10, 1, 1961, Aug.; also in:The International Buddhist News Forum, 1, 10, 1961. [not yet confirmed].

Snelling, JohnBuddhism in Russia: The Story of Agvan Dorzhiev – Lhasa’s Emissary to the Tsar, Shaftesbury, Dorset 1993.

Terentyev, Andre, “News and Buddhist Centres in Russia”, in: Narthang Bulletin, contained in each issue.

Volkova, O., “Studies of Buddhism in the Soviet Union”, in: World Buddhism, Vesak Annual 2502, 1961. [not yet confirmed].

Yermoshkin, NikolaiBuddhism and Buddhists in the USSR, Moscow: Novosti Press 1966.

Journals (selection)

Narthang Bulletin. Buddhism of Russia (twice yearly journal, published in Russian with an English summary by the St. Petersburg Buddhist Union)


Some regional journals of various, mainly Tibetan Buddhist (Gelugpa) traditions.

2.12. Nordic Countries

Alternativ tro: en antologi, 2 Vols., Stockholm: Proprius 1976 [in Vol. 1, some notes on Buddhism and other ‘Asian’ religions in Sweden; MB].

Andersen, Jens Hjort, “Tibetansk Buddhisme i Danmark”, in: Chaos (Copenhagen), No. 21, 1994, 14 pp. [survey of Tibetan Buddhism, esp. Karma Kagyu and Ole Nydahl, in Denmark; on state granting of ‘marriage right’ to Kagyu tradition, which allows tax exemption; this analysed as an organisational adaptation of Tibetan Buddhism: from continuity to change; MB].

Andersen, Jens Hjort, “State, Marriage and Buddhism – Buddhism in Denmark with special reference to the Karma Kagyu School”, 6 pp. (unpublished paper) [similar to article in Chaos; plus giving a figure of about 7.500 Buddhists in Denmark; MB].

Gaellmo, Gunnar, “Buddhism in Ceylon and Sweden”, in: Studia Orientalia 50, 1980, pp. 43-49.

Holmboe, Christopher Andreas (1796-1882), Traces de buddhisme en Norvege avant l’introduction du christianisme, Paris: Impr. de S. Racon 1857, 74 pp. [on mythology, Norse, influence of Buddhism on Norwegian civilization; IH].

Krogsboel, Thomas, “Munkeliv pa skippergarden”, in: Kulturavis for Amar (Copenhagen), No. 22, August 1994, pp. 9. [description of the Sunnataram Thai Buddhist centre in Copenhagen by a journalist; on life and practice of the seven residential monks; MB].

Reventlow, Chr.Buddhismen i dansk Litteratur, Copenhagen, ca. 1940.

University theses

Andersen, Jens HjortEn religionssociologisk unders�gelse of tibetansk Buddhisme, som den praktiseres inden for Kadjypaskolen i Danmark, i perioden 1972-1994, (‘A sociological study of Tibetan Buddhism as practised by members of the Kagyupa school in Denmark in 1972-94′), seminary thesis of the Department of the Sociology of Religion at the Institute of History of Religion, University of Copenhagen, 1994, 27 pp. (unpublished) [history of Tibetan Buddhism, esp. Ole Nydahl followers, in Denmark; state regulations for acknowledgement of Buddhism as worthy for tax exemption; criteria being well defined organisational structures, religious offices, marriage ritual; statistics, patterns of recruitment; MB].

2.13. Portugal, Spain, Greece, (former) Yugoslavia

Torres, MariaSobre la cola del cometa Osel: Memorias de la madre de un lama reencarnado, Barcelona: Plaza & Janes 1994, 310 pp.

Dr. Martin Baumann
Department of the History of Religions
University of Hannover
Im Moore 21
30167 Hannover

Fax: 0511-762-4025